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Discover what we do. Written by Steven Turner on Nov 22, We were in discussions with an educational customer to deploy Mobility Print across multiple wireless VLANs for a single school site.
However, after assessing this option with their network and DNS server teams, they determined their environment was too complex to make it happen. This left us scratching our heads as to how we could advertise the Mobility Print services across three different VLANs effectively three different subnets using mDNS as the solution. This solution works just fine, but it requires additional hardware on the server, and utilises multiple ports on the switch. After some back-and-forth with their networking team, they came up with an intriguing solution: configuring a trunk port on their network switch!
This customer actually combined the port trunking feature on their network switch with NIC Teaming on their Windows Server. This lets them use mDNS on the Mobility Print server while broadcasting across multiple IP ranges through a single network card interface. Steven is always up for a challenge to further his passion for being an awesome systems architect. He also considers himself quite the handyman and secretly enjoys when things break at home. Compare our products or dive a little deeper into product solutions.
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Written by Steven Turner on Nov 22, Read time is 3 mins.Various untrusted home automation products, as well as my own devices, go into the HA network more on that in a later post. In my setup, my OpenWRT router acts as my central router, connecting each of my networks and controlling access. In order to receive requests and responses, your devices need to be running an mDNS service and also allow incoming UDP traffic on port In order to support mDNS across routed networks, you need a proxy in the middle to transparently send requests and responses back and forward.
There are a few different options for a proxy, such as igmpproxybut i prefer to use the standard Avahi server on my OpenWRT router.
Keep in mind that doing this will also mean that any device in your untrusted networks will be able to send mDNS requests into your trusted networks. Even if untrusted devices discover addresses in LAN, the firewall is stopping the from actually communicating at least on my setup.
There is really only one thing that must be set in the config, and that is to enable reflector proxy support. This goes under the [reflector] section and looks like this. While technically not required, you can also set which interfaces to listen on. Your LAN is probably the same, but your other networks will most likely be different.
The interfaces option goes under the [server] section and looks like this. As mentioned above, devices need to have incoming UDP port open. As mDNS multicasts to a specific address with source and destination ports both usingwe can lock this rule down a bit more.
Under Open ports on router add a new rule for mDNS. This will be for UDP on port Find the new rule in the list and edit it so we can customise it further. We can set the source to be any zone, source port to bewhere destination zone is the Device input and the destination address and port are Finally, set action should be accept. If you prefer to not allow all interfaces, then create two rules instead and restrict source zone for one to LAN and to your untrusted network for the other.
To test it, ensure your Fedora computer is configured for mDNS and can resolve yourself. Now, try and ping a device in your untrusted network. For me, this will be study. When my computer in LAN tries to discover the device running in the study, the communication flow looks like this.
Now we can use mDNS to resolve devices in an untrusted network from a trusted network with zeroconf. Your email address will not be published. Firewall rules As mentioned above, devices need to have incoming UDP port open.
My computer My router The study device on HA network picks up the request and multicasts the reply of My computer successfully pings study. This is what a packet capture looks like.The thing that sits in the corner and controls the color of your lightbulbs, do not need to have access to the same network as your other data. This makes sense, as once they are configured all they do is communicate out to their respective cloud services — and the management apps for them connect to that service, not directly to the device itself.
This also makes sense, since these devices are supposed to receive data from your your other devices - directly. My primarily use case for them is Spotify Connect so I can stream music to my stereo setups I have an old analog NAD receiver with some nice Dali speakers that do not have digital connections at allso being able to actually stream music to them is rather useful.
Note: The following information was correct at the time of posting, based on a setup with 1 x UniFi Security Gateway 3P 4. Once you have this network in place, be it either via WiFi or via physical VLAN tagging on a switch port or bothyou can start moving your devices over. These devices then got a new IP assigned to them from the new network definition, and their management apps still worked without problems.
In short, this means that connections that are already in place, or related to those established connections will be allowed. Give the rule a name that makes sense, enable it and expand Advanced. Find States and select Established and Related.Cara isolasi dna pdf
Got it! Click on Save to make the rule active.Go to Solution. View solution in original post. The protocol itself is expected to be single VLAN. The functionality introduced by Airgroup also provides the functionality for it to operate across VLANs.
The intent of Airgroup is to reduce the amount of multicast mDNS traffic going over the air, by having the controller build a list of mDNS capable servers and responding to client probes for these devices. Depending on the number of mDNS servers you have across your VLANs, the basic Airgroup functionality should be sufficient for your use case as currently described.Graphtec kiss cut
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Using port trunking to broadcast mDNS traffic across multiple VLANs
Airheads Community Login to connect, learn, and engage with other peers and experts. All forum topics Previous Topic Next Topic. Regular Contributor I. Me too.
It only takes a minute to sign up. It's not clear to me exactly why, but it looks like at least discovery relies on broadcasts. Wikipedia states that Airplay is a proprietary protocol which probably explains why the only documentation I've found is unofficial like this spec at github. The first one is about service discovery and it's the way how devices capable of receiving Airplay streams announce to the network "Hey!
I can receive Airplay! It's using multicast and that's the point if someone is telling to you that "Airplay is for local LAN only" or something. The streaming itself is "normal" UDP unicast.
Now the main problem is how you get the info about Airplay receiver to the potential senders in another network. There is two theoretical options:. You can forward multicast. RTFM how exactly, but the idea is that you have to forward multicast traffic with destination address Execute this command in the LAN with Airplay receiver and this should give to you all the info you need:. Now, I said "theoretically", because I haven't tested it and whatever you do with protocols, forwarding and so on, there MIGHT be some roadblocks beyond your control - it's the Apple after all.
But even with this there are some possibilities for Apple engineers to break it. This is a common problem in educational environments. However, as you pointed out, these features rely upon a single broadcast domain for service discovery.Forces worksheet
The problem is so prevalent that many educational institution IT staff got together a few years ago, and petitioned Apple to fix Bonjour to work better in these environments. To directly address your questions, it will usually require very specialized configurations to accomplish the spanning of Airplay services across your network.
And the specific configuraition will depend heavily on your current wireless solution Cisco, Aerohive, Ubiquity, etc. In general, if you search for your wireless vendor and Bonjour, you should find documentation to at least point you in the right direction. I have had mixed success deploying Cisco's Avahi Bonjour gateway solutionand wouldn't recommend looking into it unless you absolutely have to.
So, unless Apple decides to change that, I would avoid implementing it in an Enterprise network wherever possible. However, Apple's implementations of this internal to their iDevices and MacOS are all outside your control and could change at anytime.I'm posting today because I did not find solutions to my problem, even after taking much time to search across the internet and the meraki's community forum.
I'm not sure if it's possible. But there are others with the same problem. Take a look at this topic:. I don't think regular L3 multicast routing does the trick. According to what I've read the packets sent out by Chromecasts have TTL of 1 so they're not designed to be routed. But they told me that you can connect those chromecast TV to a separated WIFI network, and enable "bonjour" forwarding even if I thought it was specific to Apple's devices.
I don't know this off the top of my head. Since that group is in the link-local control range, it will always get flooded in the VLAN from which it originated. The contents of the packet is a message which says "I'm a printer and my IP is X.
In this way, any device on the network that receives this packet can automatically discover that the printer exists, as well as learning its IP, without any sort of user intervention required to manually configure it.
If a Chromecast device uses mDNS to announce something to the effect of "I'm a Chromecast streaming device, and I offer a set of multicast video feeds", even if this mDNS announcement is copied into another VLAN and devices in that VLAN learn that the Chromecast exists, they still wouldn't be able to get the multicast video stream if the video traffic itself is sent to a multicast group that's in the non-routable range Alternatively, if the stream itself is not even multicast and is just a direct unicast stream sent to the receiving device, that too could be routed.
According to what I've read it indeed only uses mDNS for the discovery and then uses a unicast SSL connection between the Chromecast and the client device, and often another unicast connection to the actual source if it can be streamed directly.
Avahi is a keyword I came across a lot there. I'm not sure the bonjour forwarding in the MX and the MR do the trick as Chromecast doesn't seem to be listed. I was in the board room of a large company once during a meeting. The boardroom had a TV with a built in Chromecast. All of a sudden it started playing porn.
They were very embarrased and had trouble stopping it. The problem is anybody in the company on any of the floors could have been the ones casting to it. MXs Appliances still not support multicast routing. PhilipDAth Not really my call but i'm gonna take a look at it.
Could be a good suggestion to my management. Thanks for the info. Call me crazy, but there are Bonjour Forwarding config options on the MX, so isn't that all for multicast stuff like AirPlay etc.? Tried it, does not works. So even if "bonjour" is basically working with multicast, I think you can't really use it with other devices than Apples. After talking with other network guys, we came to the conclusion that Chromecast devices are more personal home solutions, not really designed for business networks.
Guide: Creating an Isolated Ubiquiti Unifi IoT Network
Also, funny thing we saw this morning, is the "guest" mode on chromecast TV. The first thing you'll need to do is ensure your Chromecast is running the most up-to-date firmware. As we've mentioned, using your Chromecast without Wi-Fi will only work with the most recent software. This is because Chromecast now has something called guest mode. This enables Chromecast owners to open the devices to guests, without those users having to be connected to a Wi-Fi network. The Chromecast device generates a random four-digit number that is required to cast to it using guest mode.
When a device nearby tries to connect, the Chrome cast device transfers this four-digit number using short inaudible tones.
Should audio tone pairing fail, a guest will then be given an option to connect manually by entering the 4-digit number displayed on the TV display and in the Chromecast app.
I'm just thinking out loud here. When it picks one up, it learns of the Chromecast source and then can establish a unicast connection to the video source. If the video stream is unicast, it can easily be routed across multiple layer 3 hops.In part 1 of this series I showed you how to pick the right networking hardware for your needs and price point. In part 2 I showed you how to set up your new equipment, migrate from your old network, and start dividing your network by device type.
So far all of your devices are on a single subnet and can all communicate with each other, which is not great since a single compromised IoT device could allow a hacker to setup a tunnel into your home network.
You can think of each VLAN as a completely separate network with a different router, a different switch, and different access points. The other advantage is that we can easily set up different firewall rules to allow only specific traffic to be able to cross VLANs since cutting your IoT devices off from your network completely will disable some of their most useful features.
I originally had my IP cameras on another vLAN as well, but I noticed some degradation in the quality of the stream when doing so. Firewall rules is the point.Free odds today
Go to settings, routing and firewall, and then click on firewall on the top. Basically when we set up rules they are processed from the top down, so if the traffic is allowed to pass based on a rule that is higher up on the list, it will not then be subsequently blocked by a rule that is lower on the list.
To make things easier on myself I always make more specific rules for allowing traffic, and broad rules for dropping traffic, then I put all the allow rules at the top and the drop rules at the bottom. The first rules we need to create are the ones that will apply to all of the IP addresses on your network, and one of the most important ones is a rule to allow established and related sessions.
This is a common rule that exists on all routers at the WAN level, which is what allows a website or service to talk back to your computer if you establish the initial connection.
I also want to allow all the devices on the network to send NTP or time synchronization requests. There are other options for taking care of this NTP problem like creating custom DNS entries to redirect traffic to a local NTP server, or doing fancy routing to trick the NTP traffic, but this solution is plenty secure for now.
Next lets configure your NoT firewall rules. The next accept rule that I need is one to allow my IoT network to access Home Assistant, or specifically my node red server.
I only need this rule because I use the Alexa Local node to configure all my echo voice commands. I could enter this as a singular IP address, but I like to use groups instead, and I already have this group defined from my previous rule.
These are basic accept rules that will probably apply to your smart home, but you may need have other ones as well based on your specific devices. For instance, chromecast uses ports, and when advertising and casting. So for me I needed to add an allow firewall rule to allow my IoT network to communicate on those ports. If you wanted to further limit the rule you could create a group that only contained your chromecast devices to use as the source instead of using the entire IoT network.
Repeat the exact same process to block IoT from NoT. The last thing that we need to allow in order for our smart home devices to function as expected is enable multicast DNS or mDNS. This is required for things like device discovery on amazon echo devices, and chromecast streaming.
Multicast traffic can cause significant slowdowns on a network since even a small amount of multicast data takes a relatively long time to process in each access point. We already enabled IGMP snooping to try to control some of this multicast data, but in a smart home multicast is a necessary evil. In order to allow mDNS is we need to turn off a feature under our site settings. Do this by clicking devices, then APs, then select an AP and click the gear. Hit queue changes then apply. After your APs provision and your wireless networks come back up should have a theoretically functioning network, but many of your IoT devices may not function well.
Luckily the unifi controller makes it pretty easy. This, along with the unchecked box for blocking multicast lets devices broadcast their IP addresses across all VLANS which should allow them to function properly, and the IMGP snooping should take those multicast requests and send them only to the devices that need to hear them, which lowers the effect on your network performance.
If you have something to add, or I got something wrong, please let me know down in the comments. But, you set up a rule that blocks the IP cameras from communicating with any IP address….Lt1 wiring diagram vss completed
First I would like to say Rob great videos. Could you share that rule. Seems it want to do a relay connection.
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